Facultative Reinsurance

Written by True Tamplin, BSc, CEPF®

Reviewed by Subject Matter Experts

Updated on July 12, 2023

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What Is Facultative Reinsurance?

Facultative reinsurance is a form of reinsurance in which the reinsurer and the ceding insurer enter into a reinsurance agreement for a specific risk or policy on a case-by-case basis.

Unlike treaty reinsurance, where a reinsurer automatically accepts all risks within a predetermined scope, facultative reinsurance allows both parties to negotiate and customize the terms and conditions for each individual risk.

The primary purpose of facultative reinsurance is to help insurers manage large or complex risks that may exceed their risk appetite or capacity.

By transferring a portion of the risk to a reinsurer, the ceding insurer can maintain solvency, stabilize its financial position, and better manage its overall portfolio.

Facultative reinsurance can also provide ceding insurers with access to the reinsurer's specialized expertise, resources, and underwriting capabilities.

Types of Facultative Reinsurance

Facultative reinsurance can be classified into two main types based on the structure of the reinsurance agreement:

Proportional Facultative Reinsurance

In proportional facultative reinsurance, the ceding insurer and the reinsurer agree to share the premiums and losses of the reinsured risk in proportion to their respective shares in the policy.

The reinsurer's share of the risk can be determined by a fixed percentage or by a quota share arrangement, where the reinsurer assumes a specified percentage of each risk.

Non-proportional Facultative Reinsurance

Non-proportional facultative reinsurance, also known as excess of loss reinsurance, provides coverage to the ceding insurer for losses that exceed a specified limit or attachment point.

In this type of reinsurance, the reinsurer's liability is not proportional to its share of the premiums but is instead based on the amount of loss that exceeds the predetermined threshold.

The Facultative Reinsurance Process

The process of placing facultative reinsurance typically involves several steps, including:

Identifying Risk

The ceding insurer identifies a specific risk or policy that requires facultative reinsurance due to its size, complexity, or potential impact on the insurer's overall risk exposure.

Negotiating Terms and Conditions

The ceding insurer and the reinsurer engage in a negotiation process to determine the terms and conditions of the facultative reinsurance agreement, including the scope of coverage, premium rates, and loss-sharing arrangements.

Placing Facultative Reinsurance

Once the terms and conditions have been agreed upon, the ceding insurer formally places the facultative reinsurance with the reinsurer, who then assumes a portion of the risk in accordance with the reinsurance agreement.

Claims Management and Settlement

In the event of a claim, the ceding insurer and the reinsurer work together to manage the claim and settle any losses in accordance with the terms of the facultative reinsurance agreement.

Differences Between Facultative Reinsurance and Treaty Reinsurance

Although both facultative and treaty reinsurance serve to transfer risk from a ceding insurer to a reinsurer, there are several key differences between the two approaches:

Flexibility and Selectivity

Facultative reinsurance offers greater flexibility and selectivity, as it allows both the ceding insurer and the reinsurer to evaluate and negotiate the terms and conditions for each individual risk.

Treaty reinsurance, on the other hand, involves a more standardized approach, with the reinsurer automatically accepting all risks within a predetermined scope.

Risk Evaluation

In facultative reinsurance, the reinsurer has the opportunity to evaluate each risk individually, which can result in more accurate pricing and risk assessment. In treaty reinsurance, the reinsurer may have less information and control over the individual risks being assumed.

Pricing and Capacity

Facultative reinsurance may involve higher pricing and administrative costs due to the case-by-case nature of the agreements and the need for more detailed risk evaluations.

However, it can also provide the ceding insurer with additional capacity to underwrite larger or more complex risks that may not be covered under a treaty reinsurance arrangement.

Relationship Between Ceding Company and Reinsurer

Facultative reinsurance typically involves a closer working relationship between the ceding insurer and the reinsurer, as the two parties collaborate to negotiate terms, manage claims, and share expertise.

In treaty reinsurance, the relationship may be more transactional and less collaborative, as the reinsurer automatically assumes the specified risks.

Differences Between Facultative Reinsurance and Treaty Reinsurance

Benefits of Facultative Reinsurance

Facultative reinsurance offers several benefits for ceding insurers and reinsurers alike:

Improved Risk Management

By transferring a portion of large or complex risks to a reinsurer, ceding insurers can better manage their overall risk exposure and maintain financial stability.

Capacity Expansion

Facultative reinsurance can provide ceding insurers with additional underwriting capacity, enabling them to take on larger or more complex risks that may exceed their internal risk appetite or capacity.

Access to Expertise and Resources

Ceding insurers can benefit from the specialized expertise, resources, and underwriting capabilities of their reinsurer partners, which can help them better assess and manage complex risks.

Financial Stability

By diversifying their risk portfolios and sharing losses with reinsurers, ceding insurers can enhance their financial stability and solvency, which is essential for maintaining a strong market presence and meeting regulatory requirements.

Challenges and Limitations of Facultative Reinsurance

Despite its benefits, facultative reinsurance also presents some challenges and limitations:

Complexity and Cost

The case-by-case nature of facultative reinsurance can result in higher administrative costs and complexity compared to treaty reinsurance, as each agreement requires individual negotiation and risk evaluation.

Time-Consuming Process

The negotiation and placement process for facultative reinsurance can be time-consuming, as both the ceding insurer and reinsurer must carefully evaluate and agree upon the terms and conditions for each risk.

Potential for Disputes

The customized nature of facultative reinsurance agreements can sometimes lead to disputes between the ceding insurer and the reinsurer, particularly in cases where the terms and conditions are not clearly defined or understood.

Counterparty Risk

Ceding insurers must carefully consider the creditworthiness and financial strength of their reinsurer partners, as they may be exposed to counterparty risk if the reinsurer is unable to meet its obligations under the reinsurance agreement.

Benefits and Limitations of Facultative Reinsurance

Facultative Reinsurance in Different Insurance Lines

Facultative reinsurance can be utilized across various insurance lines, including:

Property Insurance

In property insurance, facultative reinsurance can be used to manage risks associated with high-value properties or properties exposed to unique or severe hazards, such as natural disasters or terrorism.

Casualty Insurance

Casualty insurance, may seek facultative reinsurance for risks with high loss potential, such as large-scale construction projects, environmental liabilities, or complex liability exposures.

Life Insurance

Life insurance can utilize facultative reinsurance to manage risks associated with high face amount policies, policies with unusual underwriting characteristics, or policies issued to individuals with significant health or lifestyle risks.

Specialty Lines

Facultative reinsurance can also play a role in specialty lines of insurance, such as aviation, marine, or cyber insurance, where the risks may be highly specialized or complex, and the expertise of a reinsurer can be particularly valuable.


Facultative reinsurance plays a crucial role in the risk management strategies of insurance companies.

As a flexible and customizable approach to risk transfer, it allows insurers to manage large or complex risks more effectively, expand their underwriting capacity, and access the specialized expertise and resources of reinsurers.

This collaborative approach enables ceding insurers and reinsurers to create tailored solutions that address their unique needs and risk profiles, ensuring financial stability and regulatory compliance for both parties.

As the insurance landscape continues to evolve rapidly, with emerging risks and changing market dynamics, facultative reinsurance will likely become even more vital for insurers.

By staying informed about technological advancements, market trends, and regulatory developments, insurers and reinsurers can ensure that facultative reinsurance remains a valuable and effective tool for managing risk in the future.

Embracing innovation and collaboration will be key to successfully navigating the challenges and opportunities presented by the ever-changing world of risk management and insurance.

Facultative Reinsurance FAQs

About the Author

True Tamplin, BSc, CEPF®

True Tamplin is a published author, public speaker, CEO of UpDigital, and founder of Finance Strategists.

True is a Certified Educator in Personal Finance (CEPF®), author of The Handy Financial Ratios Guide, a member of the Society for Advancing Business Editing and Writing, contributes to his financial education site, Finance Strategists, and has spoken to various financial communities such as the CFA Institute, as well as university students like his Alma mater, Biola University, where he received a bachelor of science in business and data analytics.

To learn more about True, visit his personal website or view his author profiles on Amazon, Nasdaq and Forbes.

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