Investment Risk

True Tamplin, BSc, CEPF®

Written by True Tamplin, BSc, CEPF®

Reviewed by Subject Matter Experts

Updated on June 08, 2023

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What Is Investment Risk?

Investment risk refers to the possibility that an investment's actual returns may differ from the expected returns, potentially resulting in financial loss.

In simple terms, it is the uncertainty related to investing. Risks are inherent in any investment, and understanding them is crucial for making informed decisions and managing potential losses.

Being aware of the risks associated with an investment can help investors make better decisions and avoid potential pitfalls.

By understanding the different types of investment risks, investors can create a more balanced portfolio, reducing the impact of adverse market events and increasing the likelihood of achieving their financial goals.

Types of Investment Risk

There are numerous types of investment risk, each with its unique characteristics and potential impact on investment returns. The following sections will discuss these risks in detail, including their causes, effects, and potential mitigation strategies.

Market Risk

Market risk is the risk that the value of an investment will decrease due to changes in overall market conditions.

Definition and Examples

Market risk, also known as systematic risk, refers to the potential for an investment to lose value due to factors affecting the entire market, such as economic conditions or political events.

For example, a stock market crash or a significant geopolitical event can negatively impact the value of most investments, regardless of their individual merits.

Factors Affecting Market Risk

Various factors can influence market risk, including economic indicators, interest rates, and geopolitical events. Additionally, market sentiment and investor behavior can also contribute to market risk, as they can cause sudden fluctuations in asset prices.

Mitigating Market Risk

Market risk cannot be eliminated entirely, but it can be managed through diversification and asset allocation strategies.

By investing in a variety of asset classes and sectors, investors can reduce their exposure to any single market event, thereby minimizing the potential impact of market risk on their overall portfolio.

Credit Risk

Credit risk is the risk that a borrower will default on their debt obligations, causing losses for the lender or investor.

Definition and Examples

Credit risk, also known as default risk, arises when a borrower is unable or unwilling to meet their debt obligations, such as repaying a loan or making interest payments on a bond. This risk can result in a loss of principal or interest income for the lender or investor.

Factors Affecting Credit Risk

Credit risk is influenced by the financial health of the borrower and the broader economic environment. Factors such as the borrower's credit history, income, and debt levels can impact their ability to repay their obligations, while economic conditions can also affect the likelihood of default.

Mitigating Credit Risk

Credit risk can be managed through proper due diligence, diversification, and credit rating analysis. By researching the financial health of potential borrowers and diversifying investments across multiple borrowers or sectors, investors can reduce their exposure to credit risk.

Liquidity Risk

Liquidity risk is the risk that an investor will not be able to buy or sell an asset at a reasonable price within a desired timeframe.

Definition and Examples

Liquidity risk arises when an investor cannot quickly buy or sell an asset without significantly impacting its price. Illiquid assets, such as thinly-traded stocks or real estate, can be difficult to sell at a fair price or within a desired timeframe, potentially resulting in losses.

Factors Affecting Liquidity Risk

Liquidity risk is influenced by factors such as market depth, trading volume, and market sentiment. Assets with low trading volumes or those that are not widely held by investors are more susceptible to liquidity risk.

Mitigating Liquidity Risk

Liquidity risk can be managed by diversifying investments, focusing on more liquid assets, and maintaining a cash reserve for emergencies.

By holding a mix of liquid and illiquid assets in their portfolio, investors can reduce the potential impact of liquidity risk on their overall investment strategy.

Operational Risk

Operational risk refers to the risk of loss resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes, systems, or human actions.

Definition and Examples

Operational risk encompasses a wide range of potential issues, including errors in trade execution, system failures, or fraudulent activities.

For example, a financial institution may suffer losses due to a cyberattack that compromises its trading systems, or an investment firm might experience losses due to employee fraud.

Factors Affecting Operational Risk

Operational risk can be influenced by factors such as organizational culture, employee competency, and the quality of internal controls. Inadequate oversight or ineffective risk management practices can increase operational risk within an organization.

Mitigating Operational Risk

Operational risk can be reduced through robust risk management practices, including establishing clear policies and procedures, implementing strong internal controls, and fostering a culture of accountability and transparency.

Inflation Risk

Inflation risk is the risk that the purchasing power of an investment's returns will be eroded by inflation.

Definition and Examples

Inflation risk arises when the rate of inflation outpaces the return on investment, diminishing its purchasing power. For example, if an investment earns a 3% return but inflation is 4%, the real return on the investment is -1%, resulting in a loss of purchasing power.

Factors Affecting Inflation Risk

Inflation risk is primarily influenced by macroeconomic factors, such as monetary policy, fiscal policy, and economic growth. High levels of government spending or an increase in the money supply can contribute to inflation, eroding the value of an investment's returns.

Mitigating Inflation Risk

Investors can manage inflation risk by investing in assets that have the potential to outpace inflation, such as stocks or inflation-protected securities. Diversifying investments across various asset classes can also help protect against inflation risk.

Currency Risk

Currency risk is the risk that changes in exchange rates will adversely affect the value of an investment.

Definition and Examples

Currency risk, also known as foreign exchange risk or exchange rate risk, occurs when fluctuations in currency exchange rates impact the value of investments denominated in foreign currencies.

For example, an American investor holding European stocks may experience losses if the euro weakens against the US dollar.

Factors Affecting Currency Risk

Currency risk is influenced by factors such as interest rates, economic conditions, and geopolitical events. Central bank policies, such as changes in interest rates or currency interventions, can also have a significant impact on exchange rates.

Mitigating Currency Risk

Currency risk can be managed through diversification, investing in currency-hedged funds, or using currency hedging strategies such as forward contracts or options.

By limiting exposure to foreign currencies or employing hedging techniques, investors can reduce the potential impact of currency risk on their portfolio.

Interest Rate Risk

Interest rate risk is the risk that changes in interest rates will negatively impact the value of an investment.

Definition and Examples

Interest rate risk primarily affects fixed-income investments, such as bonds. As interest rates rise, the market value of existing bonds typically decreases, as new bonds issued at higher rates become more attractive to investors.

Factors Affecting Interest Rate Risk

Interest rate risk is influenced by factors such as monetary policy, inflation, and economic conditions. Central banks, such as the Federal Reserve, can raise or lower interest rates in response to economic indicators, which can directly impact the value of fixed-income investments.

Mitigating Interest Rate Risk

Investors can manage interest rate risk by diversifying their fixed-income portfolio, investing in bonds with different maturities and credit qualities, and employing strategies such as laddering or barbell portfolios.

Additionally, investors can consider allocating a portion of their portfolio to assets that are less sensitive to interest rate changes, such as stocks or real estate.

Concentration Risk

Concentration risk is the risk associated with having a large portion of an investment portfolio allocated to a single asset or sector.

Definition and Examples

Concentration risk arises when an investor's portfolio is heavily weighted toward a particular asset, sector, or market, making it more vulnerable to fluctuations in that specific area.

For example, if an investor holds a significant portion of their portfolio in technology stocks, they may experience larger losses during a downturn in the technology sector.

Factors Affecting Concentration Risk

Concentration risk can be influenced by various factors, including investor preferences, market trends, and the performance of specific industries or sectors.

Concentrated portfolios can be more susceptible to market events or sector-specific risks, which can result in larger losses than a more diversified portfolio.

Mitigating Concentration Risk

Concentration risk can be managed through diversification, which involves spreading investments across various asset classes, sectors, and regions.

By maintaining a well-diversified portfolio, investors can reduce their exposure to concentration risk and minimize the potential impact of market events or sector-specific risks on their investment returns.

Systemic Risk

Systemic risk is the risk that a significant event or series of events will cause widespread disruption or collapse of an entire financial system or market.

Definition and Examples

Systemic risk refers to the potential for a major shock or crisis to disrupt the functioning of an entire financial system, resulting in widespread losses and economic instability.

For example, the 2008 financial crisis, triggered by the collapse of the US housing market, led to a global economic downturn and widespread losses for investors.

Factors Affecting Systemic Risk

Systemic risk can be influenced by factors such as financial market interconnectivity, regulatory policies, and macroeconomic conditions.

A high degree of interconnectedness among financial institutions, combined with inadequate risk management practices, can increase the potential for systemic risk.

Mitigating Systemic Risk

Systemic risk is difficult for individual investors to manage, as it affects the entire market or financial system.

However, investors can take steps to protect their portfolios from systemic risk by diversifying their investments across various asset classes, sectors, and regions, and maintaining a long-term investment perspective.

Comparison of the Different Types of Investment Risks

Risk Management Techniques

Effective risk management is essential for successful investing and can help minimize the potential impact of investment risks on portfolio performance.


Diversification involves spreading investments across a range of asset classes, sectors, and regions, which can help reduce the overall risk of a portfolio.

A well-diversified portfolio is less likely to be significantly impacted by any single market event or risk factor, helping to protect investment returns over the long term.

Asset Allocation

Asset allocation is the process of determining the optimal mix of assets within a portfolio based on an investor's risk tolerance, investment objectives, and time horizon. By carefully selecting and adjusting the allocation of assets, investors can balance risk and reward and achieve their financial goals.

Hedging Strategies

Hedging strategies involve using financial instruments, such as options or futures, to offset potential losses from an investment. By employing hedging strategies, investors can protect their portfolios against specific risks, such as currency risk or interest rate risk.

Risk Tolerance Assessment

Risk tolerance assessment involves evaluating an investor's willingness and ability to accept investment risk.

By understanding their risk tolerance, investors can create a portfolio that aligns with their financial goals and risk preferences, helping to ensure that they can withstand market fluctuations and stay committed to their long-term investment strategy.


Risk management plays a critical role in successful investing. By understanding and managing the various types of investment risks, investors can make informed decisions, create a more balanced portfolio, and increase the likelihood of achieving their financial goals.

Investing involves balancing risk and reward. While higher-risk investments may offer the potential for greater returns, they also come with a higher probability of losses.

By carefully assessing and managing investment risks, investors can strike the right balance between risk and reward, maximizing their potential returns while minimizing their exposure to potential losses.

Risk management is an ongoing process that requires continuous monitoring and evaluation. As market conditions, investment objectives, and risk tolerance evolve, investors should regularly review their portfolios and risk management strategies.

By staying vigilant and adapting to changing circumstances, investors can protect their portfolios and enhance their long-term investment performance.

Investment Risk FAQs

About the Author

True Tamplin, BSc, CEPF®

True Tamplin is a published author, public speaker, CEO of UpDigital, and founder of Finance Strategists.

True is a Certified Educator in Personal Finance (CEPF®), author of The Handy Financial Ratios Guide, a member of the Society for Advancing Business Editing and Writing, contributes to his financial education site, Finance Strategists, and has spoken to various financial communities such as the CFA Institute, as well as university students like his Alma mater, Biola University, where he received a bachelor of science in business and data analytics.

To learn more about True, visit his personal website or view his author profiles on Amazon, Nasdaq and Forbes.