Automobile Insurance

Written by True Tamplin, BSc, CEPF®

Reviewed by Subject Matter Experts

Updated on September 04, 2023

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What Is Automobile Insurance?

Automobile insurance is a contract between a policyholder and an insurance company, where the policyholder pays premiums in exchange for coverage for damages and losses related to their vehicle.

This coverage can include protection against accidents, theft, vandalism, and other events that can result in damage to the policyholder's vehicle or cause harm to others.

The specific coverage and premiums of automobile insurance policies vary depending on the policyholder's needs, driving history, and other factors.

Factors Affecting Automobile Insurance Premiums

Driver's Age, Gender, and Marital Status

Insurers consider demographic factors such as age, gender, and marital status when determining insurance premiums. Generally, younger drivers, male drivers, and single individuals pay higher premiums due to their higher risk profiles.

Driving Record and Experience

A driver's record and experience significantly impact insurance premiums. A clean driving record and more years of driving experience result in lower premiums, while traffic violations and accidents can increase rates.

Location and Geographic Factors

Geographic factors such as population density, crime rates, and weather conditions in a driver's location can affect insurance premiums. Urban areas with high traffic density and crime rates often have higher premiums than rural areas.

Vehicle Make, Model, and Age

The make, model, and age of a vehicle influence insurance costs. Expensive, high-performance vehicles or vehicles with high repair costs typically have higher premiums. Older vehicles may have lower premiums due to their lower market value.

Credit Score and History

Many insurance companies use credit scores and histories as a factor in determining premiums. Individuals with higher credit scores usually pay lower premiums as they are deemed to be more financially responsible.

Insurance Coverage Options Selected

The type and amount of coverage selected directly impact the premium cost. Choosing higher coverage limits or additional coverage options will increase the premium.

Factors Affecting Automobile Insurance Premiums

Types of Automobile Insurance Coverage

Liability Coverage

Bodily Injury Liability

Bodily injury liability covers the cost of injuries sustained by others in an accident where the policyholder is at fault. This coverage includes medical expenses, lost wages, and legal fees.

Property Damage Liability

Property damage liability covers the cost of damages to another person's property in an accident where the policyholder is at fault. This typically includes repair or replacement of the other party's vehicle and other damaged property.

Uninsured/Underinsured Motorist Coverage

Uninsured/underinsured motorist coverage protects policyholders when involved in an accident with a driver who has insufficient or no insurance. This coverage helps pay for medical expenses and property damage.

Collision Coverage

Collision coverage covers the cost of repairs or replacement of the policyholder's vehicle after an accident, regardless of fault.

Comprehensive Coverage

Comprehensive coverage protects against non-collision events such as theft, vandalism, fire, or natural disasters. This coverage pays for repairs or replacement of the policyholder's vehicle in these situations.

Medical Payments Coverage (MedPay) or Personal Injury Protection (PIP)

MedPay or PIP covers medical expenses for the policyholder and passengers in their vehicle, regardless of fault. PIP may also cover lost wages and other related expenses.

Gap Insurance

Gap insurance covers the difference between the outstanding loan balance on a vehicle and its actual cash value in the event of a total loss.

Rental Reimbursement and Towing Coverage

Rental reimbursement and towing coverage provide financial assistance for rental cars or towing services in the event of a breakdown or accident.

Types of Automobile Insurance Coverage

How to Choose the Right Automobile Insurance Policy

Assessing Individual Needs and Budget

Before selecting an insurance policy, evaluate personal needs and budget constraints. Consider factors such as the value of the vehicle, driving habits, and desired coverage levels to find the best policy.

Comparing Quotes From Multiple Providers

Obtain and compare quotes from multiple insurance providers to find the most competitive rates and suitable coverage options. Online tools and insurance brokers can help streamline this process.

Evaluating Customer Service and Company Reputation

Research the reputation and customer service quality of potential insurance providers. Read reviews, ask for referrals, and consider the company's financial strength to ensure a satisfactory experience.

Understanding Policy Terms and Exclusions

Carefully review policy terms and exclusions to understand the extent of coverage and any limitations. Ask questions and clarify any doubts before purchasing a policy.

Utilizing Discounts and Bundling Options

Take advantage of discounts and bundling options to lower insurance premiums. Insurers often offer discounts for good driving, safety features, or bundling multiple policies, such as home and auto insurance.

Periodically Reviewing and Updating Coverage

Regularly review and update coverage to ensure it remains adequate as personal circumstances change. Update coverage after major life events, such as purchasing a new vehicle or moving to a new location.

How to Choose the Right Automobile Insurance Policy

Filing a Claim and Managing Automobile Insurance

Steps to Take After an Accident

Following an accident, ensure the safety of all involved, exchange contact and insurance information, document the scene with photos, and report the accident to the authorities, if required.

Filing a Claim With the Insurance Company

Contact the insurance company to report the accident and initiate the claims process. Provide necessary documentation and follow the insurer's guidelines throughout the process.

Understanding the Claims Process and Timeline

Familiarize yourself with the claims process and expected timeline. Claims can involve inspections, estimates, negotiations, and repair authorizations before reaching a settlement.

Managing Premium Increases After a Claim

Insurance premiums may increase after filing a claim. To mitigate premium increases, consider reviewing coverage options, exploring discounts, or shopping for new policies.

Disputing a Claim Decision or Seeking Legal Advice

If unsatisfied with a claim decision, policyholders can dispute the outcome with the insurance company or seek legal advice from an attorney specializing in insurance law.

Future Trends in Automobile Insurance

The Impact of Autonomous Vehicles

Autonomous vehicles will change the automobile insurance landscape as liability shifts from drivers to manufacturers and technology providers. Insurers will need to adapt their policies and pricing models to account for this shift.

Usage-Based Insurance and Telematics

Usage-based insurance (UBI) and telematics technology will continue to gain popularity, allowing insurers to tailor premiums based on individual driving habits and real-time data.

The Role of Artificial Intelligence in Claim Processing

Artificial intelligence (AI) will increasingly automate claim processing, resulting in faster claims handling, reduced human error, and more accurate assessments.

Evolving Legal Frameworks and Regulations

As the automobile insurance industry evolves, legal frameworks and regulations will need to adapt to new technologies and trends, ensuring consumer protection and fair competition.

Environmental Factors and Electric Vehicles

The growth of electric vehicles (EVs) will influence insurance premiums as insurers consider factors such as battery life, charging infrastructure, and repair costs when calculating rates.


Maintaining adequate automobile insurance is essential for financial protection and legal compliance. Regularly review and update coverage to ensure it aligns with personal needs and circumstances.

Stay informed about changes and trends in the automobile insurance industry to make informed decisions and ensure adequate coverage as new technologies and regulations emerge.

As personal circumstances, vehicle ownership, and driving habits change, it's crucial to review and update coverage accordingly. This practice will help ensure that insurance policies continue to provide appropriate protection and meet legal requirements.

Automobile Insurance FAQs

About the Author

True Tamplin, BSc, CEPF®

True Tamplin is a published author, public speaker, CEO of UpDigital, and founder of Finance Strategists.

True is a Certified Educator in Personal Finance (CEPF®), author of The Handy Financial Ratios Guide, a member of the Society for Advancing Business Editing and Writing, contributes to his financial education site, Finance Strategists, and has spoken to various financial communities such as the CFA Institute, as well as university students like his Alma mater, Biola University, where he received a bachelor of science in business and data analytics.

To learn more about True, visit his personal website or view his author profiles on Amazon, Nasdaq and Forbes.

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