Jensen's Alpha

Written by True Tamplin, BSc, CEPF®

Reviewed by Subject Matter Experts

Updated on July 16, 2023

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What Is Jensen's Alpha?

Jensen's alpha, also known as Jensen's measure, is a risk-adjusted performance metric used in finance to evaluate the excess returns generated by a portfolio or investment relative to its expected returns, given its level of risk as measured by the capital asset pricing model (CAPM).

Jensen's alpha is an essential tool in portfolio management. It helps investors and fund managers assess whether a portfolio generates superior returns due to effective investment strategies or simply taking on additional risk.

It is particularly useful in determining the skill of portfolio managers in generating value for investors.

Understanding Jensen's Alpha

Conceptual Basis of Jensen's Alpha

Jensen's alpha measures the difference between a portfolio's actual returns and its expected returns based on the CAPM.

A positive Jensen's alpha indicates that a portfolio has generated higher returns than expected for its level of risk, while a negative alpha suggests underperformance.

Connection to CAPM and Systematic Risk

Jensen's alpha is directly connected to CAPM as it incorporates the concept of systematic risk, represented by the beta coefficient. Systematic risk is the risk inherent to the overall market, which cannot be eliminated through diversification.

Applications of Jensen's Alpha in Portfolio Evaluation

Jensen's alpha is used to evaluate the risk-adjusted performance of portfolios, assess fund managers' skill in generating value, and identify superior investment strategies.

Calculating Jensen's Alpha

Required Data for Calculation

Portfolio Returns

The actual returns generated by the portfolio during the evaluation period.

Risk-Free Rate

Government bond yields typically represent the return on a risk-free investment.

Market Returns

During the evaluation period, the returns of a broad market index, such as the S&P 500.

Beta Coefficient

A measure of the portfolio's systematic risk in relation to the market.

Jensen's Alpha Formula

Jensen's alpha can be calculated using the following formula:

Jensen's Alpha Formula

Interpreting the Results of Jensen's Alpha Calculation

A positive Jensen's alpha indicates that the portfolio has outperformed its expected returns based on its level of risk, suggesting superior investment performance. A negative alpha indicates underperformance relative to the expected risk-return relationship.

Benefits and Limitations of Jensen's Alpha


Assesses the Risk-Adjusted Performance of a Portfolio

Jensen's alpha provides insight into a portfolio's performance after accounting for the level of risk involved, allowing investors to compare investments with different risk levels on a comparable basis.

Evaluates the Effectiveness of Portfolio Managers

By isolating the impact of a portfolio manager's investment decisions from market movements, Jensen's alpha can help determine whether a manager adds value through their investment strategies or merely benefits from overall market trends.

Identifies Superior Investment Strategies

A positive Jensen's alpha can indicate that an investment strategy is consistently generating above-average returns compared to its level of risk, suggesting that the strategy may be more effective than others.


Dependence on Historical Data

Jensen's alpha is calculated using historical data, which may not necessarily be indicative of future performance.

Assumptions of the CAPM

The validity of Jensen's alpha relies on the assumptions underlying the CAPM, such as the existence of a risk-free rate and the linear relationship between risk and expected returns.

If these assumptions do not hold, the accuracy of Jensen's alpha as a performance measure may be compromised.

Sensitivity to Changes in Market Conditions

Jensen's alpha can be sensitive to changes in market conditions, making it essential for investors to consider how different market environments may affect their portfolio's risk-adjusted performance.

Benefits and Limitations of Jensen’s Alpha

Jensen’s Apha vs Other Performance Evaluation Measures

Sharpe Ratio

The Sharpe ratio measures a portfolio's risk-adjusted return by comparing excess returns to standard deviation. A higher Sharpe ratio indicates better risk-adjusted performance.

Treynor Ratio

The Treynor ratio is similar to the Sharpe ratio but uses the beta coefficient as a measure of risk instead of the standard deviation. It is particularly useful for comparing the performance of diversified portfolios.

Sortino Ratio

The Sortino ratio is a variation of the Sharpe ratio that only considers downside risk or the risk of negative returns. It is useful for investors who are more concerned with downside risk than overall volatility.

Information Ratio

The information ratio measures the excess returns of a portfolio relative to a benchmark index, divided by the tracking error, which is the standard deviation of the excess returns.

It is useful for evaluating the performance of active investment strategies compared to passive benchmarks.

Practical Applications of Jensen's Alpha

Portfolio Construction

Investors can use Jensen's alpha to select investments with superior risk-adjusted performance, helping to build more efficient portfolios that optimize returns for a given level of risk.

Manager Selection and Evaluation

By comparing Jensen's alpha of different fund managers, investors can identify those with a consistent track record of generating excess returns, potentially leading to better investment outcomes.

Benchmarking Investment Performance

Jensen's alpha can be used as a benchmark to evaluate the performance of individual investments or entire portfolios, allowing investors to make more informed decisions about their investment strategies and allocations.


Jensen's alpha is an essential tool in portfolio management, providing valuable insights into the risk-adjusted performance of investments and the effectiveness of portfolio managers.

While it has its limitations, such as its reliance on historical data and the assumptions of the CAPM, it remains a valuable metric when used in conjunction with other performance measures.

By considering Jensen's alpha as part of a comprehensive approach to investment evaluation, investors can make more informed decisions and ultimately achieve better long-term financial outcomes.

Jensen's Alpha FAQs

About the Author

True Tamplin, BSc, CEPF®

True Tamplin is a published author, public speaker, CEO of UpDigital, and founder of Finance Strategists.

True is a Certified Educator in Personal Finance (CEPF®), author of The Handy Financial Ratios Guide, a member of the Society for Advancing Business Editing and Writing, contributes to his financial education site, Finance Strategists, and has spoken to various financial communities such as the CFA Institute, as well as university students like his Alma mater, Biola University, where he received a bachelor of science in business and data analytics.

To learn more about True, visit his personal website or view his author profiles on Amazon, Nasdaq and Forbes.

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