Defensive Stocks

Written by True Tamplin, BSc, CEPF®

Reviewed by Subject Matter Experts

Updated on July 12, 2023

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What Are Defensive Stocks?

Defensive stocks are shares of companies that exhibit certain characteristics, making them more resistant to economic downturns. These stocks tend to perform well even when the overall market is experiencing volatility or recession.

Defensive stocks are typically found in non-cyclical industries, such as utilities, consumer staples, or healthcare.

They are known for their ability to maintain stable earnings growth, steady dividend payouts, and low beta, which measures the stock's sensitivity to market fluctuations.

Investors often include defensive stocks in their portfolios to mitigate risk and provide stability during turbulent market conditions. These stocks act as a defensive buffer, helping to offset potential losses from more volatile investments.

Characteristics of Defensive Stocks

Low Beta

One key characteristic of defensive stocks is their low beta. Beta measures the relationship between a stock's price movement and the overall market's movement.

Defensive stocks tend to have betas less than 1, indicating that they are less volatile compared to the broader market. This lower volatility can provide a sense of stability and help preserve capital during market downturns.

Non-cyclical Industries

Defensive stocks are typically found in non-cyclical industries that offer products and services that are in constant demand, regardless of the economic climate. Examples of non-cyclical industries include consumer staples, healthcare, utilities, and telecommunications.

These sectors tend to exhibit more stable revenue streams and are less affected by economic fluctuations.

Steady Dividend Payouts

Another characteristic of defensive stocks is their consistent dividend payouts. These stocks often belong to companies that have a long history of distributing dividends to their shareholders, even during challenging economic times.

The regular income provided by dividends can be particularly appealing to income-oriented investors, providing a stable source of cash flow.

Stable Earnings Growth

Defensive stocks are known for their ability to maintain stable earnings growth over time. Companies in defensive sectors tend to have more predictable revenue streams, which translates into consistent and reliable earnings.

This stability in earnings growth can be attractive to investors seeking a more predictable and less risky investment option.

Examples of Defensive Stocks

Consumer Staples

Consumer staples are essential products that people use on a daily basis, such as food, beverages, household goods, and personal care items. Companies in the consumer staples sector tend to have stable demand for their products regardless of economic conditions.

Examples of defensive stocks in this sector include well-established brands like Procter & Gamble, Coca-Cola, and Colgate-Palmolive.


The healthcare sector is another defensive area that remains resilient even during economic downturns. Demand for healthcare services, pharmaceuticals, and medical products remains relatively stable.

Companies in this sector, such as Johnson & Johnson, Pfizer, and Merck, often exhibit defensive qualities due to their steady revenue streams and essential products or services.


Utilities are essential services that include companies providing electricity, water, and natural gas. These companies offer products or services with inelastic demand, meaning that they are necessary for daily life and less influenced by changes in the economy.

Examples of defensive stocks in the utilities sector include Dominion Energy, Duke Energy, and NextEra Energy.

Advantages of Defensive Stocks

Stability in Volatile Markets

One of the primary advantages of defensive stocks is their ability to provide stability during times of market volatility. While other sectors may experience significant price fluctuations, defensive stocks tend to be more resistant to such swings.

This stability can help investors feel more confident and comfortable with their investments, even in the face of market turbulence.

Consistent Returns

Defensive stocks typically provide consistent returns over time. While these returns may not be as high as those offered by more volatile investments, they tend to be more predictable and reliable.

This can be particularly appealing to investors who prioritize stability and security over the potential for high returns.

Protection Against Economic Downturns

Defensive stocks provide protection against economic downturns. During a recession, for example, many companies may struggle to maintain profitability or even stay in business.

However, companies in defensive sectors tend to be more resilient and can weather economic storms better than their more volatile counterparts.

Disadvantages of Defensive Stocks

Lower Potential for Capital Appreciation

One of the main disadvantages of defensive stocks is that they tend to have a lower potential for capital appreciation compared to more volatile investments.

While these stocks may offer more stability and protection during downturns, they may not experience the same rapid growth as companies in more volatile sectors.

Limited Growth Opportunities

Defensive stocks also tend to have limited growth opportunities. Since these companies are typically found in non-cyclical industries with stable demand, they may not have as many opportunities for growth as companies in more volatile sectors.

This can limit the potential for higher returns over time.

Vulnerability to Interest Rate Changes

Finally, defensive stocks can be vulnerable to changes in interest rates. As interest rates rise, investors may begin to favor other types of investments, such as bonds or higher-yielding dividend stocks.

This can cause the price of defensive stocks to decline, potentially leading to losses for investors.


Factors to Consider When Investing in Defensive Stocks


When investing in defensive stocks, it's essential to consider the stock's valuation. Some defensive stocks may be overvalued, meaning that their price may not accurately reflect their underlying value.

Conducting a thorough analysis of the stock's valuation can help investors make informed decisions and avoid overpaying for their investments.

Company Fundamentals

Investors should also pay close attention to a company's fundamentals when considering a defensive stock. This includes examining the company's financial statements, management team, and growth prospects.

Strong fundamentals can indicate that a company is well-positioned to weather economic storms and continue to perform well over time.

Industry Trends

Finally, investors should consider industry trends when selecting defensive stocks. Certain industries, such as healthcare or utilities, may be more stable and less prone to economic fluctuations.

Understanding the broader trends within the industry can help investors identify the most promising opportunities for investment.

Final Thoughts

Defensive stocks play an important role in any well-rounded investment portfolio. These stocks provide stability, consistent returns, and protection against economic downturns.

While they may have some limitations, such as limited growth opportunities or vulnerability to interest rate changes, their defensive qualities make them a valuable addition to any investor's portfolio.

It's important to note that while defensive stocks may be less volatile, they are not entirely immune to market fluctuations. Economic downturns or changes in interest rates can still impact these stocks, albeit to a lesser extent than other types of investments.

In addition, it's crucial to maintain a well-diversified investment portfolio that includes a range of investments, not just defensive stocks. A diversified portfolio can help to minimize risk and maximize returns over time.

Applying and understanding defensive stocks allow Investors to make informed decisions and create a well-rounded investment strategy that meets their long-term goals.

Defensive Stocks FAQs

About the Author

True Tamplin, BSc, CEPF®

True Tamplin is a published author, public speaker, CEO of UpDigital, and founder of Finance Strategists.

True is a Certified Educator in Personal Finance (CEPF®), author of The Handy Financial Ratios Guide, a member of the Society for Advancing Business Editing and Writing, contributes to his financial education site, Finance Strategists, and has spoken to various financial communities such as the CFA Institute, as well as university students like his Alma mater, Biola University, where he received a bachelor of science in business and data analytics.

To learn more about True, visit his personal website or view his author profiles on Amazon, Nasdaq and Forbes.

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