The learning objectives in this article are to consider:
Assets are the properties, things, and receivables with certain values that are owned by a business.
Examples of assets include cash, debtors, stock, accounts receivable, prepaid expenses, land, buildings, plant, machinery, vehicles, furniture, fixtures, goodwill, patents, copyrights, trademarks, patterns, and deferred costs.
List of Assets
- Tangible Assets
- Motor vehicles
- Fixtures and fittings
- Long-term investments
- Intangible Assets
- Cash in hand
- Cash at bank
- Marketable securities
- Sundry debtors
- Bills receivable
- Prepaid expenses
- Accrued income
- Preliminary expenses
- Discount on issue of shares
- Discount on issue of debentures
- Loss on issue of shares
- Loss on issue of debentures
- Technical knowhow
Classification of Assets
1. Real Assets
Assets with a market value are called real assets.
Cash, debtors, stock, accounts receivable, prepaid expenses, land, buildings, furniture, goodwill, patents, copyrights, trademarks, and patterns.
(A) Fixed Assets
Assets with a long life or assets of a permanent nature, with which the business is carried on, are called fixed assets.
Land, buildings, plant, machinery, motor vehicles, furniture, fixtures, and fittings.
The following are the main types of fixed assets:
(i) Tangible Assets
Assets that have physical existence are called tangible assets. Examples include cash, land, buildings, furniture, plant, and machinery. There are two types of tangible assets:
- Wasting Assets Assets whose value gradually declines due to usage, finally being exhausted completely (e.g., mines, forests).
- Non-Wasting Assets Assets whose value gradually declines due to usage, but which are not exhausted completely (e.g., vehicles).
(ii) Intangible Assets Assets with no physical existence are called intangible assets. Examples include trademarks, copyrights, patents, and goodwill.
(B) Current Assets
Assets that are already in the form of cash, or which can be converted into cash quickly, are known as current assets.
Cash in hand, cash at bank, accounts receivable, stock, prepaid expenses.
There are two main types of current assets:
- Liquid Assets or Quick Assets All current assets, excluding stock/inventory and prepaid expenses, are liquid assets, which means they are already in the form of cash or can be converted into cash quickly (e.g., cash in hand, cash at bank, and accounts receivable).
- Floating Assets Assets that are bought, manufactured, or held for selling purposes are known as floating assets. Examples of floating assets include stocks of raw materials and finished goods.
2. Fictitious Assets
Fictitious assets are assets with no market value.
Other Types of Assets
- Contingent Assets Assets that come into existence after a particular event happens are called contingent assets. Actually, these are not assets at present but become assets in the future (i.e., upon the happening of a certain event). Example: Suppose a legal suit is filed against someone for damages. This is a contingent asset because it may come into existence if the court grants a favorable decision.
- Outstanding Assets Income earned but not received (accrued income) and expenses paid in advance are called outstanding assets. Examples: Prepaid insurance, accrued interest on investment
Learning from the experts
Real assets have physical existence. Current, or quick, assets are in cash form or can be converted into cash quickly. Fictitious assets have no market value. Intangible assets have no physical existence.
Examples include land, buildings, motor vehicles, furniture, cash, debts receivable, prepaid expenses, patents, copyrights and trademarks.
Real assets are the types of assets with physical existence (e.G., Land, buildings, motor vehicles). All Fixed Assets are included in this category.
Examples include cash, Accounts Receivable, stock, prepaid expenses.
Assets that are already in the form of cash or can be converted into cash quickly (e.G., Cash in hand, cash at bank and Accounts Receivable).
True Tamplin is a published author, public speaker, CEO of UpDigital, and founder of Finance Strategists.
True is a Certified Educator in Personal Finance (CEPF®), author of The Handy Financial Ratios Guide, a member of the Society for Advancing Business Editing and Writing, contributes to his financial education site, Finance Strategists, and has spoken to various financial communities such as the CFA Institute, as well as university students like his Alma mater, Biola University, where he received a bachelor of science in business and data analytics.