# Marginal Costing: Practical Questions and Solutions

### Reviewed by Subject Matter Experts

Updated on April 03, 2023

## Question 1

A company produces 500 units at a variable cost of \$200 per unit. The price is \$250 per unit and there are fixed expenses of \$12,000 per month.

For this question, calculate Break-even point in terms of both units and sales. Also, show the profit at 90% capacity.

### Solution

(i) BEP (units) = Fixed Expenses / C

= (\$542,000 + \$252,000) / 6

= 792,000 / 6 = 132,000 units

BEP (Sales) = 132,000 x 20 = \$2640,000

(ii) Sales for examining profit = \$60,000

BEP (units) = (Fixed Exp. + Desired Profit) / C

= (792,000 + 60,000) / 6

= 852,000 / 6

= 142,000 units

BEP Sales = 142,000 x 20 = \$2,840,000

## Question 2

For a company, sales are \$80,000, variable costs are \$4,000, and fixed costs are \$4,000. Calculate the following: (i) PVR, (ii) BEP (Sales), (iii) Margin of Safety, and (iv) Profit.

### Solution

(i) PVR = (C / \$) x 100 = (4,000 x 100) / 8,000 = 50%

C = 8,000 - (4,000) = \$4,000

(ii) BEP (Sales) = Fixed Cost / PVR

= (4,000 x 100) / 50

= \$8,000

(iii) MOS = Actual Sales - BEP Sales

= 8,000 - 8,000

= Nil

OR

MOS = Profit / PVR = 0 / 8,000 = Nil

(iv) Profit = Sales - Variable Cost - Fixed Cost

= 8,000 - 4,000 - 4,000

= Nil

## Question 3

From the following information, find out PVR and sales at BEP.

• Variable cost per unit = \$15
• Sales per unit = \$20
• Fixed expenses = \$54,000

What should the new selling price be if BEP for units is reduced to 6,000 units?

### Solution

PVR = (C x 100) / S

Thus,

= ((20 - 15) x 100) / 20

PVR = 25%

BEP (Sales) = Fixed expenses / PVR

= (54,000 x 100) / 25

= \$216,000

(iii) New selling price if BEP is brought down to 6,000 units:

New SP = (Fixed Exp. + Variable Cost ) / New BEP (units)

= (54,000 + 15) / 6,000

= \$24

## Question 4

Calculate (i) PVR, (ii) BEP, and (iii) Margin of Safety based on the following information:

• Sales = \$100,000
• Total cost = \$80,000
• Fixed cost = \$20,000
• Net profit = 80,000

### Solution

(i) PVR = (C x 100) / S

C = Sales - Variable Cost

100,000 - 60,000 = 40,000

Variable cost = Sales - Profit - Fixed Cost

(100,000 - 20,000 - 20,000) = 60,000

Thus,

PVR = (C / S) x 100

= (40,000 / 100,000) x 100

= 40%

(ii) BEP = Fixed Exp. / PVR

= 20,000 / 40%

= (20,000 x 100) / 40

= \$50,000

(iii) Margin of Safety = Present Sales - Break-Even Sales

= 1,00,000 - 50,000

= 50,000

Profitability = (40 x 50,000) / 100

= \$20,000

## Question 5

The National Company has just been formed. They have a patented process that will make them the sole suppliers of Product A.

During the first year, the capacity of their plant will be 9,000 units, and this is the amount they will be able to sell. Their costs are:

• Direct labor = \$15 per unit
• Raw materials = \$5 per unit
• Other variable costs = \$10 per unit
• Fixed costs = \$240,000

There are two parts to this question:

(a) If the company aims to make a profit of \$210,000 for the first year, what should the selling price be? What is the contribution margin at this price?

(b) If, at the end of first year, the company aims to increase its volume, how many units will they have to sell to realize a profit of \$760,000 given the following conditions?

• An increase of \$100,000 in the annual fixed costs will increase their capacity to 50,000 units
• Selling price is at \$70 per unit and no other costs change
• \$500,000 is invested in advertising

### Solution

(a) Calculation of selling price

Direct labor (9,000 x 15) = \$135,000

Raw materials (9,000 x 5) = \$45,000

Other variable costs (9,000 x 10) = \$90,000

Total variable costs (PU 30) = 270,000

Profit = 210,000

Total sales value of 9,000 units @ \$80 per unit = 720,000

(b) Sales in units

(Fixed expenses + Desired profit) / (Sales - Variable cost)

Thus,

Fixed Expenses = 2,40,000 (given) + 1,00,000 (extra) + 50,000 (advertisement cost)

= 840,000 + Desired Profit (760,000) = \$1,600,000

= 1,600,000 / (70 - 30) = 40,000 units